5月 23, 2013

找人代写论文群体思维的特点

找人代写论文

Features of Groupthink
All the antecedents taken together lead to members seeking concurrence and agreement with the group members. This behaviour of trying to achieve greater harmony and seeking approval and concurrence from the group manifests a series of groupthink symptoms.
The symptoms of groupthink start to occur when decision makers become motivated to avoid being too harsh to their team-members’ or leader’s ideas/decisions (anon, 2003). These symptoms also arise when people opt for a soft line of criticism, to shun conflicts and sometimes their own ideas too. In other words, group members are mostly looking for amiability and concurrence with other group members rather than the optimum plan of action (anon, 2003). These symptoms are categorized in three types and eight sub-types overall:
Type I: Overestimations of the group—its power and morality
Invulnerability:
When a group becomes more optimistic and willing to take greater risks, and clings to the delusion that they are invulnerable to obvious dangers of that decision, the group has become a victim of groupthink and this invulnerability is the first symptom of groupthink. It overestimates the power of the group and may end up ignoring clear signs of danger.
Morality:
When a group starts to ignore his or her own ethical or moral values for the sake of achieving harmony within the group and gain concurrence with everyone, the group is facing groupthink and unquestioningly believes in the inherent morality of their group.
Type II: Closed-mindedness
Rationalization:
When group members start to collectively justify their selection, discounting warnings or other negative comments, they have become a victim of groupthink. This symptom becomes vivid when group members begin presenting rationales for doubts and ignore signals which may lead them to rethink their past decisions.

 

找人代写论文

群体思维的特点
所有的来路汇聚在一起,导致寻求与该组成员的同意和协议的成员。努力实现更大的和谐与寻求批准,并同意从组的这种行为体现了一系列的群体思维症状。
群体思维的症状开始出现,成为动机,以避免过于苛刻他们的团队成员或领导者的想法/决定(2003年)不久,当决策者。这些症状也出现时,人们选择软线的批评,回避冲突,有时自己的想法太多。换句话说,小组成员大多是寻找与其他组的成员,而不是最佳的行动计划(2003年)不久,可爱之处和同意。这些症状分为三种类型和8个整体子类型:
I型:高估组的权力和道德
无敌:
当一组变得更加乐观,并愿意承担更大的风险,死守的错觉,以为他们是无懈可击的明显危险,决定,该集团已成为受害者群体思维,刀枪不入是首发症状的群体思维。高估组的力量,并最终可能会忽略明确危险的迹象。
道德:
当一组开始忽略他或她自己的伦理道德价值,为了实现和谐组和增益与大家同意,该集团正面临着群体思维和固有的道德,他们的小组中毫无疑问地相信。
II型:封闭意识
合理化:
当组成员开始集体证明自己的选择,贴现警告或其他负面评论,他们已经成为一个群体思维的受害者。这种症状变得生动组成员开始时提出疑虑的理由,而忽略的信号,这可能导致他们重新考虑他们过去的决策。

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