在他们的文章《政治不稳定与经济增长》中，作者运用政治经济学理论研究了人均GDP增长与政治不稳定之间的关系(Alesina et al.， 1996)。为了进行这项调查，在1950年至1982年期间收集了113个国家的样本。正如本文所证明的假设，政治不稳定被定义为政府崩溃的倾向，并估计了一个经济增长与政治不稳定共同决定的模型。本文的关键发现是，在政府崩溃倾向较高的国家和特定时间段，经济增长显著下降(Alesina et al.， 1996)。当政府变革的定义仅限于涉及整个政府的重大变革的案例时，这种影响具有很强的意义。
Lucas(1990)在他的文章《供给侧经济学:分析综述》中对经济学的供给侧理论进行了分析综述。关键的目标是对这些贡献所造成的资本征税进行一项数量审查研究(Lucas, 1990)。为了进行这一分析，其他几位研究人员的贡献已经提出，如Chamley(1986)、Judd(1985、1987)、Kotlikoff和Auerbach(1987)和Bernheim(1981)。作为这项研究的一个关键假设，研究理论的方式可以从根本上帮助人们对重大的实际问题和疑问进行革命性的思考。通过这些成果的建立，证明了以往经济学家所强调和介绍的理论。其主要目的并不是将它们保存在实质性和方法论正统的琥珀之下(Lucas, 1990)。
As identified by a number of researchers, there has been an increased reference and application of economic theories. This is because of an enhanced awareness across global environment, under reinforcement by dramatic events of the environment, international conferences on the development and the environment, along with academic publications and research.
The aim of this essay is to apply the knowledge of economic theories referring to three different research articles. The three research articles selected for this purpose are: Supply-Side Economics: An Analytical Review (1990), The Fate of Sustainable Development Under Neo-liberal Regimes in Developing Countries (1999), and Political instability and economic growth (1996). These journal articles will be analyzed from the context of their literature review, theory application and hypothesis proved.
Tabellini and Ozler (1991), Tabellini and Edwards (1992) and Alesina (1990) presented a number of models within which there is uncertainty among the government regarding its survival, and hence, there is a significant application in suboptimal policies for worsening the condition of inherited world by the successor. All of the theories, mutually follow the notion that instability of politics result in inefficiencies of economy.
Identification of Economic Theories, Hypotheses and Key Findings
In their article Political Instability and Economic Growth, the authors have applied the political economic theory for investigation the relationship between per capita GDP growth and political instability (Alesina et al., 1996). For this investigation, a sample of 113 nations has been collected for the duration between 1950 and 1982. As the hypothesis proven in this article, political instability has been defined as the propensity regarding collapse of government, and a model has been estimated in which there is a joint determination of economic growth and political instability. The key finding of this article is that in nations and specific time durations, with higher propensity in collapse of government, growth has been lowered in a significant manner (Alesina et al., 1996). This impact has strong significance when the definition of government change is restricted to cases regarding the substantial changes across the government.
In his article Supply Side Economics: An Analytical Review, Lucas (1990) has presented an analytical review about the supply- side theory of economics. The key objective was to provide a quantitative review research on taxation of capital as a result of these contributions (Lucas, 1990). In order to conduct this analysis, the contributions of several other researchers have been presented such as Chamley (1986), Judd (1985, 1987), Kotlikoff and Auerbach (1987), and Bernheim (1981). As a key hypothesis for this research, the way in which theory is looked can fundamentally help in revolutionizing one’s thinking towards significant practical questions and doubts. The research has demonstrated the theories highlighted and introduced by past economists by establishment of these achievements. The key purpose was not to preserve them under the amber of substantive and methodological orthodoxy (Lucas, 1990).
Finally, in the article The Fate of Sustainable Development under Neo- Liberal Regimes in Developing Countries, Haque (1999) has addressed certain issues with respect to the problems, meaning, and origin of sustainable development from the perspective of neo-liberal theory of economics. The article has offered certain recommendations from the perspective to overcome the contemporary issues of sustainability and ensure a more effective and genuine source for sustainable development (Haque, 1999). The essence of this particular theory has been put-forth ideologically, reflecting the agenda of capitalism across the globe. This is because it is able to survive and expand mainly because of consumerism. Overall, the article concludes that capitalism involves the requirement for consuming nature.