景观设计涉及到与科学和艺术相关的元素的组合，以创造一个美观的，功能扩展形式的室内环境走向室外。任何景观设计的主要目的都是在自然环境中融合人的技术。为了达到理想的景观设计，园艺师应具备实用的设计原则和艺术元素的知识(Weller 2008, 25)。从景观设计的原则出发，尺度、肌理、形式、线条、色彩是进行组合调整的重要工具。
这些原则包括简单、重复、节奏、比例、聚焦、过渡、平衡和统一。所有这些原则之间存在交互作用，以产生预期的设计。在历史背景下，英国园林风格经历了重大的转变，对称的花坛和直的盟友似乎反映了设计取代自然景观设计(Fleck和Fitzpatrick 2010, 221)。有时，为了专注于自然风景，在牺牲建筑定义的空间组织创造的同时，也会有原始的终端景观。18世纪在这一背景下发挥了重要作用，同时彻底改变了景观设计的原则，以及这些设计景观的呈现方式，反映了整体环境和自然格局。因此，这为从景观设计的不同原则和模式的角度对不同景观进行批判性分析提供了重要的空间(Cadenasso and Pickett 2008, 4)。
Landscape design involves the combination of elements related to science and art for the creation of an aesthetically pleasing, functional extended form of indoor environment moving towards the outdoors. The key purpose for any design of landscape focuses on blending the technology of man within the natural environment. For working towards the achievement of a desirable design of landscape, the respective horticulturist should be having workable knowledge of design principles and art elements (Weller 2008, 25). Considering the principles of landscape design, scale, texture, form, line and colour are important tools used for making adjustments in combination.
The principles are inclusive of simplicity, repetition, rhythm, proportion, focalization, transition, balance and unity. There is an interaction between all of these principles for yielding the design intended. In the historical setting, significant transformation was experienced in the English style of gardening, while symmetrical parterres and straight allies appeared to reflect supplant of design over the naturalistic design of landscape (Fleck and Fitzpatrick 2010, 221). At times, there were original terminal vistas in order to focus upon natural scenery, while sacrificing the creation of spatial organization with architectural definition. The 18th century played a significant role in this context, while revolutionizing the principles of landscape design and the way in which these designed landscapes are presented reflecting the overall setting and the pattern of nature. Hence, this provides a significant scope for critically analysing different landscapes from the perspective of different principles and patterns of landscape designing (Cadenasso and Pickett 2008, 4).
The key focus of this essay is on analysing the principles of two designed landscapes. The analysis will be conducted with respect to their cultural context, underlying design philosophy, stylistic attributes and formal qualities. In conducting the critical analysis, there will be illustration of precise, accurate analytical diagrams along with appropriate plans and photographs. The specific focus of the analysis will be on the way in which there is use of plant materials and there is incorporation of larger landscape within the design. The key focus will be on investigating the associations and ideas embedded within the works. The landscapes selected for the purpose of this critical analysis are the landscape of Cork City and the landscape of Western Isles.