Deal and Kennedy (1984) considerculture as“The way we do things round here.” They disputethat culture is key to role-playing in the success or failure of organizations. They suggest that culture consists of four dimensions:values, heroes, idols, rites and rituals and the culture network (1982). ComparabletoSchein’sdepiction, value reflects dissimilarmannerstowards different dilemmasoradvancement. Heroes are those who conveyconventionalset of lawsand values which are fashionedby the bestof the organization. Rites and rituals are the legitimatetechniquesby whichparty votersconduct tasks or interact with others. The culture network is where partyvoterscommunicate with each other.
Cameron &Quinn (1999) come up with their theory of the Competing Values Framework, as can be shown in Figure-1.
Source: The Competing Values Framework: Organizational Culture (Adapted from Quinn 1988)
They measure organization culture in respect oftwo dimensions: internal/external focus and stability/flexibility structure (Gray& Densten). There are four quadrants followed. The first quadrant is named Clan; its traitis high flexibility and an internal focus. The kind of culture accentuates information sharing andparticipative decision-making.Members have strongest feelings of affiliation and belonging. The second quadrantis characterized byhigh flexibility and high external focus, as we can see from picture. This kind of culture stresses the significance of innovation, creativity and external support. The third quadrant is named as Hierarchy. In this kind of culture, management and control are stressed, thus tasks and duties are performed efficiently. The last quadrant is named market. It is a market oriented type of organization. Members stress productivity, efficiency and competitiveness.
新政和肯尼迪（1984年）considerculture“的方式，我们做一些事情，在这里圆。”他们disputethat文化是组织的成功或失败的角色扮演的关键。他们认为，文化包括四个方面：价值观，英雄，偶像，仪式和仪式和文化网络（1982）。ComparabletoSchein’sdepiction，值反映dissimilarmannerstowards不同的dilemmasoradvancement的。英雄是那些谁conveyconventionalset的lawsand值，这是fashionedby的最妙的组织。仪式和仪式是的legitimatetechniquesby whichparty votersconduct，任务或与他人互动。是partyvoterscommunicate彼此的文化网络。