十月 16, 2017

美国作业代写:经济

美国作业代写:经济

与法国相比,瑞典更深层地植根于其对社会经济的基本信念,自1890年“8小时工作、8小时自由时间和8小时睡眠”(Eaton,2000年)以来一直如此。这个国家高度社会化,高度工会化,高度集权化,并与政治社会民主党联系在一起。这个国家经历了一些变化,并放开了与政党的联系,进行了权力下放,而工会的数量也在减少,而雇主的组织则保持稳定。瑞典工业联合会与瑞典雇主联合会合并成立于2001年,被称为瑞典企业联合会。该企业与包括欧盟在内的国家和中央政府进行了更多的游说活动,而谈判的内容则更少。就业关系非常稳定,几乎覆盖了80%的市场,这与法国的覆盖面不一样。在瑞典,员工工会的广泛权利是对工人的强有力的支持,而法国的雇员工会权利的比例非常低,因为它更像雇主(Kieffer和詹金斯,2002年)。

美国作业代写:经济
国家在瑞典的作用是确保充分就业和保持经济增长,这与法国不同,后者将就业问题留给外部因素。瑞典的跨阶级联盟的力量使蓝白的白领工作更加紧密,并且有了更大的协调,而法国在就业方面的差距更大。瑞典很少有分割的部门,这使得管理就业关系更加容易,并且具有普遍的文化同质性,强调了平等的发展和进步。这个国家没有参与任何的世界大战,这也带来了美国国债的经济利益。瑞典的社团主义背景是关于劳动力和资本在经济政策的一些关键要素之间的集中的讨价还价。团结工会的工资政策是在瑞典带来的,这提高了生产力、工资、平等、非常低的失业率,而且在工业和工会之间的冲突(Bordogna和佩德西尼,2013年)之间的冲突微不足道。另一方面,法国的罢工比瑞典的多,因为它试图在多个公司决策中干预国家层面。然而,雇主对工业和政治需求的增长产生了抵触情绪,而随着白领工作岗位的增加,制造业工人的数量也出现了下降,这造成了工会的裂痕。因此,瑞典虽然受到2009年国际危机的影响较小,但失业率高达8-9%,工会依然强大且受欢迎,尽管新一代并不热衷于参与其中。

美国作业代写:经济

In contrast to France, Sweden is more deep rooted in its underlying belief of social economy and have been so since the demand of the ‘8 hours of work, 8 hours of free time, and 8 hours and sleep’ in 1890 (Eaton, 2000). The country had been highly socialised, highly unionised, highly centralised, and linked with political social democratic party. The country has undergone some change and have liberalised the link with political parties, undergone decentralisation, and the number of unions have also decreased while employers’ organisations have remained stable. The Federation of Swedish Industry was merged with the Swedish Employers Federation was formed in 2001 and was termed as Confederation of Swedish Enterprise. This enterprise had more lobbying activity with the state and the central government including the EU and less of negotiations. The employment relations are very stable and cover almost 80% of the market unlike France which is less in its coverage. Extensive rights to employee unions in Sweden is a very strong support for the workers, whereas France has very low ratio of employee union rights as it intervenes more as an employer (Kieffer and Jenkins, 2002).

美国作业代写:经济
The state’s role in Sweden is to ensure full employment and maintain economic growth, unlike France which leaves employment issues to external factors. Sweden with its power of cross-class alignment made the blue and white collar jobs closer and having larger coordination, whereas France has more disparity in its employment sections. Sweden has few segmented sectors making it easier for managing the employment relations and has general cultural homogeneity with a strong emphasis on the development and improvement of equality. The country did not participate in any of the world wars and this has had economic benefits of treasuries. The corporatism context in Sweden consists of a centralised bargaining between labour and capital over some key elements of economic policy. The solidarity wage policy was brought in Sweden which boosted productivity, wages, equality, very low unemployment numbers, and has negligible conflict between industries and unions (Bordogna and Pedersini, 2013). France on the other hand more strikes than Sweden as it tried to intervene at state level in multiple corporate decisions. However, there has grown employer resistance for growth of industrial and political demand, and the number of manufacturing workers has declined with the rise of white collar jobs creating a rift in the union. Thus, Sweden, though less impacted due to the international crisis of 2009, but it has an unemployment level of 8-9% and the unions remain strong and popular though the new generation is not keen on getting involved.

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