3月 7, 2018

代写论文:政治腐败

代写论文:政治腐败

腐败是一种全球现象。它的定义很模糊,必须根据上下文来定义。例如,官员的腐败被定义为滥用公职或权力,为自己或他人谋取私利。这是国家一级的腐败现象,更多的时候这种腐败形式在全世界范围内被观察到,影响到国家的经济利益,国家的社会发展并且有时导致多重问题。滥用权力形式的腐败只会导致其他系统性的腐败形式,并因文化,人群等因素而异。例如,在泰国,有一些调查和实践被认为是像美国这样的国家的腐败,但在那里不被视为腐败。泰国人的世界实际上是接受这种行为。当在全球范围内考虑这种形式的腐败时,不仅这些国家受到影响,还有其他国家也受到影响。因此,在这些国家一直被接受的文化和法律形式会导致一些接受的东西在别处被称为腐败。

代写论文:政治腐败
其他形式的理解腐败正在对相关部门进行观察,例如公职人员被看作是为了谋取私利而利用某些东西,那么他可以被称为经济腐败的人(Bardhan,1997年) 。另一方面,政治腐败则是指为了利用形势而以治理规则的形式制定正式规则的情况。罗宾逊(Robinson,2004)将政治腐败描述为正式的规则,只是为了分配私人利益的公共资源。政府规则必须使每个人都受益,而不仅仅是某个特定的部分人。在存在这种行为的民主国家中,可以认为存在政治腐败(Robinson,2004)。类似的,其他类型的腐败是偶然的,工具性的和系统性的腐败。偶然发生的腐败与个人行为有关,工具性腐败与公共服务行为相关联,最终系统性腐败与社会意识有关。在系统性腐败的情况下,后果更多。

代写论文:政治腐败

Corruption is a global phenomenon. Its very definition is ambiguous, and has to be defined based on context. For instance, corruption in the case of officials is defined as the abuse of a public office or power in order to gain private benefits for self or others. This is corruption at the state level and more often this form of corruption is observed all over the world, impacting on the economic benefit to country, the country’s social development and at times leading to multiple issues. The abuse of power form of corruption simply leads to other systemic forms of corruption and varies based on culture, people etc. For example, in Thailand, there are some surveys and practices which would be considered as corruption in a country like the United States, but is not considered corruption there. Thai people world actually accept the behavior as a needed one. When this form of corruption is considered in a global context, it is not just these nations that are affected, but others too. Therefore, culture and the form of law that has always been accepted in these countries would lead to some accepting things which would have been called corruption elsewhere.

代写论文:政治腐败
Other forms of understanding corruption are viewing it with respect to the sector involved, as in if a person in public office is seen to make use of something for his private gains then he could be called out as an economically corrupted person (Bardhan, 1997). On the other hand, political corruption is defined as that situation where formal rules are made out in the form of governance rules in order to take advantage of situations. Robinson (2004) described political corruption as where formal rules are made just to allocate public resources for private profits. Government rules have to be benefiting everybody and not just a certain specific section of people. In a democracy where such actions are present, then it could be argued that there is political corruption (Robinson, 2004). Similar, other categories of corruption are the incidental, instrumental and systemic corruption. Incidental corruption is associated with an individual action, instrumental corruption is associated with a public service action and finally systemic corruption is associated with societal sense. In the case of systemic corruption, the ramifications are more.

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