五月 23, 2018

代写论文:生态系统

代写论文:生态系统

在生境范围和条件方面的长期下降,依次是20世纪40年代后期开始强调粮食、木材、能源和水供应最大化的结果。这种过剩生产的成本和问题已在许多当前时代得到观察。特别是农业生产力的增加,伴随而来的是其他生态系统服务的下降,特别是与生物多样性和空气、土壤和水质有关的服务。因此,难怪这些半自然的栖息地已经退化了很多。尽管在过去的10-20年里提供了一些生态系统服务,但NEA强调许多生态系统服务仍然远远低于其全部潜力。此外,不断增长的人口和气候变化的日益增加的影响意味着生态系统服务的压力不大可能减少。一个主要的挑战是增加粮食生产,同时减少农业部门通过可持续加强对其他生态系统服务的影响。鉴于食品安全的要求,目前需要一个平衡的行动。

代写论文:生态系统
支持服务,包括其他初级生产和营养循环,并没有列在单独的生境中,因为它们被认为是生产所有其他生态系统服务的必要条件。在实践中,土地经常可以得到管理,使各种生态系统服务(如互惠互利)同时交付。然而,自然是一个复杂的、相互联系的系统和生态系统服务。它们不是相互独立产生的。因此,任何试图最大限度地提供一种服务的努力都可能对其他服务的生产产生积极或消极的影响。在某些情况下,有可能创造获胜的局面。以河流恢复为例,考虑河流的恢复是如何提高生态环境、生物多样性和渔业效益的。在其他情况下,服务之间的权衡可能是显而易见的,例如,非本地树种的种植目的是隔离碳。因此,这项工作的目的是强调工作与自然的重要性,并在决定采取现有的PES方案的决定中确定服务之间的任何权衡。

代写论文:生态系统

Long-term declines in habitat extent and condition are, in turn, the result of the emphasis from the late 1940s onwards on maximizing the supply of food, timber, energy and water. The costs and issues of such surplus production have been observed in many current times. The increase in agricultural productivity in particular was accompanied by a decline in other ecosystem services, particularly those relating to biodiversity and air, soil and water quality. Therefore, it is no wonder that these semi-natural habitats have been degraded much. Despite improvements in the provision of some ecosystem services over the past 10-20 years, the NEA emphasizes that many ecosystem services are still delivering at far below their full potential. Moreover, a growing population and the increasing impacts of climate change mean that pressures on ecosystem services are unlikely to diminish. One major challenge is to increase food production while reducing the agricultural sector’s impact on other ecosystem services through sustainable intensification. With food security demands, a balancing act is required at present.

代写论文:生态系统
Supporting services, including other primary production and nutrient cycling, are not listed against individual habitats as they are considered essential for the production of all other ecosystem services. In practice, land can often be managed such that a variety of ecosystem services (as in mutual benefits) are delivered simultaneously. However, nature is a complex, interconnected system and ecosystem services. They are not generated independently of one another. Therefore, any attempt to maximize the supply of one service is likely to influence the production of other services, either positively or negatively. In some cases, it is possible for a winning situation to be created. As an example, consider how river restoration enhances amenity, biodiversity and fishery benefits. In other instances, trade-offs between services may be apparent, for example, where non-native tree species are planted with the aim of sequestering carbon. The purpose of this work is hence to stress on the importance of working with the grain of nature and identifying any trade-offs between services in the decision to take forward existing PES schemes.

 

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