Robert Winter in the New Grove ‘Schubert’ article suggests that the middle episode in the slow movement Andantino ‘comes as close to a nervous breakdown as anything in Schubert’s output’. After the C-sharp minor climax comes a serene phase in C-sharp major. Such usage of variation leads back to the first episode, generating more intense sadness. In the bar 159 of this recap section, bell-like repeat notes are added. Accents exist in the repeat notes of bars 159 and 160, but disappear in those of bars 162, 167 and 168, so that those repeat notes remain in the same dynamic level. And such configuration helps delivering a sense of hopelessness.
The third movement is regarded as transformation based on the opening movement of the sonata. At the beginning of the third movement, arpeggiated chords are used as reminiscent of the final bars of the preceding Andantino, extending the arpeggiated sonorities and the feeling of sadness. However, playful and skipping chords could still be heard in this part, which seemingly reveals the re-emergence of hope. Owing to the 3/4 rhythm dance style and the melodic accompaniment by the left hand, delighted spirit could also be found in the trio, slightly solemn though it might be. It seems that the right hand is playing a serious song in the middle register while the left hand is frequently shifting between bass and treble, simulating a scene where flute and double bass/cello are accompanying to carry on a lively conversation. Hence, the waltz style and a sense of airy lightness are reflected.
The fourth movement was back to relaxed and positive style. The theme of fourth movement came from the first sonata of Schubert’ s three last sonatas, which in A minor, D537, composed ten years ago(music example); but except the theme, it was mainly modelled based on the Rondo of the Beethoven’s sonata Op.31 no.1 (Music example).