本文主要讲政府工具存在的作用，在政府结束时的一个主要问题是实现(Reidpath & Allotey, 2003)。任何国家一级的政策都将面临不同州和领土一级的执行问题。在这里可以产生积极的区域和农村影响，因为生活在农村地区和较不发达的社会经济地区的人民现在将受益(Tyyska, 1994)。这些地区对婴儿死亡率的担忧将会减弱。政策工具的存在是为了通过政府代表人民进行一些干预，如地方、国家或国际当局(欧盟，2017)。本篇代写论文价格文章由英国论文时Essay Times教育网整理，供大家参考阅读。
A primary issue at the government end will be that of implementation (Reidpath & Allotey, 2003). Any policy at the national level will face implementation concerns at different state and territory level.A positive regional and rural impact can be created here as the people living in rural area and lesser socio-economic zones would now benefit (Tyyska, 1994). Infant mortality concerns from these regions would recede. Policy instruments exist for the purpose of making some interventions on behalf of people by the government, such as the local, national or the international authorities (European Union, 2017).
Now in the policy, instruments could be direct or indirect (Hertz et al., 1994). Direct policy improvements include such elements like a grant, a loan, a reimbursable advance, some form of equity or market replication etc. Indirect policy instruments include such elements as clusters, incubators, research centres, demo centres etc. (Miller, 1985). Financial instruments and non-financial instruments would both be combined together in order to make the implementation (Antonovsky, 1967). Direct policy improvement would start from the national government and would be passed down to the state and local governments. The policy would make use of a two way communication system in order to ensure that adequate scope for the improvement of the policy (Singh & Miller, 2004). More often, policy failures result from the fact that the top level people like the national government push down their policy to the bottom level without consulting people from all ends.
“Policy instruments are the means by which public policy is put into practical effect, In theory we might expect politicians to decide on the policy, with officials and practitioners devising the means of its implementation. In practice these two areas may be confused. For example, politicians may introduce all sorts of ideas for instruments, and have a commitment to them which takes inadequate account of either their effectiveness or the appropriateness of the underlying policy to current conditions” (European Union, 2017, para. 8).
It is to be understood that although politicians are the ones who introduce policies, it is the useful feedback given by the people that will help sustain the policy and improve it for the future. This is something to be considered in the current policy improvement.