11月 4, 2021

澳洲论文代写:课程多元化方式

澳洲论文代写:课程多元化方式。在中国等亚洲国家,课程开发的框架实践最终给出了固定的含义,并产生了二元性。一个占主导地位的知识最终会征服另一个不那么占主导地位的知识。Apple(2004)认为教育是一种政治行为,教育者参与其中。学校不仅要发挥经济作用,而且要增强政治、社会和文化意识。二元思维方式无法处理以上所有问题。一个更加多样化的课程是必要的。接下来澳洲论文代写将为同学们讲解下课程多元化方式。

课程结构不趋于多元化。国家课程倾向于一种二元思维(Blaise et al., 2013)。Blaise et al.(2013)在他们的研究文献综述中发现,中国和香港的幼儿园课堂采用了西方的读写理解。“这些在亚洲背景下理解识字学习的方法是有问题的,因为它们依赖于这样一种信念,即存在‘最佳’实践,等待发现。”这种思维依赖于二分法和二元对立来产生意义”(Blaise等人,2013,第13页)。框架实践在学校中使用,在学校课程定义为发展适宜的实践DAP和发展不适宜的实践DIP。学校不仅要发挥经济作用,而且要增强政治、社会和文化意识。二元思维方式无法处理以上所有问题。一个更加多样化的课程是必要的。例如,香港教育局向教师提出幼稚园教育的注意事项,以指导课程的策划、反馈和组织。单一形式的非差异化、非多样化的教学方法被接受。这种二元的实践不能理解能够满足现代学生需求的各种实践。

前几节从课程的角度讨论了西方的方法和被征服的知识,并讨论了西方课程对中国教育背景的不利影响。然而,在某些情况下,西方技术的结合将是有帮助的,特别是在课程设置方面。这看似矛盾,但这种平衡是必要的。例如,与西方模式相比,亚洲或更具体地说,中国学校的课程交付形式被认为是不灵活的(Kettula等人,引用于Powell, 2015)。例如,在芬兰,教师更多的是充当向导。他们表现出更少的权威,这导致了一个友好放松的环境,学生可以推理,提问或以民主的方式提出他们的论点,而这种环境在中国的课堂上是缺失的,那里更强调权威,纪律和惩罚。马尔库塞(2013)认为专制因素会剥夺认知和认知评价。马尔库塞(2013)的论点是关于在演讲和话语语境中的权威如何导致顺从的态度。语言的焦点也可以延伸到课程的焦点。由于学生倾向于随波逐流,那么他们的个人发展就会受到阻碍或被随波逐流所取代。正如Apple & Weis(1983)所指出的,此类教育的重点在于创造资本积累,而不是培养负责任的、有公民意识的学生。学生的学习可以有一个更加开放和灵活的学习空间,学生可以提问、推理和论证。这种形式的学习空间将满足他们的个人需求和愿望,而不是僵化的国家课程。

Curriculum structure does not tend towards diversity. The national curriculum tends towards a binary form of thinking (Blaise et al., 2013). In their research literature review, Blaise et al., (2013) identified that Western understanding of literacy is adopted in Chinese and Hong Kong kindergarten classrooms. “These ways of understanding literacy learning in Asian contexts are problematic because they rely on the belief that there is a ‘best’ practice out there, waiting to be found. This thinking relies on dichotomies and binary oppositions to produce meaning” (Blaise et al., 2013, p. 13). Framing practices are used in school where curriculum is defined in terms of developmentally appropriate practices DAP and developmentally inappropriate practices DIP. Schools not only should play an economic role, but it also increases political, social and cultural consciousness. A binary thinking approach would not be capable of handling all the above. A much more differentiated and diversified curriculum is necessary. Hong Kong Education Bureau for instance, presents Do’s and Don’ts in kindergarten education for teachers which guides curriculum planning, feedback and organization. A one-way form of non-differentiated and non-diversified teaching approach is accepted. This binary practice fails to understand the variety of practices that would help meet the needs of the modern student.

Western approach and subjugated knowledges were discussed in terms of curriculum in the previous sections and the adverse impact of western curriculum on Chinese educational context was discussed. However, in some cases, the incorporation of western techniques will be helpful, especially in curriculum delivery for instance. This is a seeming paradox, but this balance is necessary. For example, the Asian or more specifically the Chinese school form of curriculum delivery is considered to be inflexible as compared against western models (Kettula et al., as cited in Powell, 2015). In Finland for instance, teachers served as more of a guide. They showed less authority, and this resulted in a friendly relaxed environment where the students could reason, ask questions or place their arguments in a democratic way and this environment was missing in Chinese classes, where there was more emphasis on authority, discipline and penalties. Authoritarian elements are argued by Marcuse (2013) as depriving cognition and cognitive evaluations. Marcuse’s (2013) arguments are on how authority in the context of speech and discourse can lead to a conformist attitude. The linguistic focus can also be extended to curriculum focus. As students tend to conform, then their personal development is hindered or traded off for conformance. As Apple & Weis (1983) argue, the focus of such education aims to create capital accumulation more than responsible, civic minded students as well. Student learning can improve with a more open and flexible learning space where the student can ask questions, reason and make arguments. This form of learning space would meet their personal needs and aspirations instead of a rigid national curriculum.

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