研究发现，中国和新西兰在看待和执行领导力的方式上存在差异。通过比较关系概念和Aotearoa所执行的网络，可以发现这两个概念都拥有非正式网络的相似之处，即新西兰人对接纳他人持开放态度，而中国人则对接纳他人持封闭态度(Levy, 2004)。研究表明，虽然非正式的社交网络被用作经营企业和实现社会进步的基础，但新西兰的Aotearoa人通过在经营家庭、分娩和育儿实践中相互支持来支持社区内的其他个人。领导力的对比和比较表明，虽然新西兰各地的个人是开放的，以帮助和支持其他个人，他们的中国同行扩展他们的支持和帮助的基础上关系(Kilkolly profit, 2013)。中国人非常重视关系，因为只有与社区成员和政府的其他企业建立了牢固的关系，成员们才会相互支持。因此，中国和新西兰在领导层内部存在着相当大的差异。不同的领导是存在的，而新西兰的领导人被视为一个好领导人由于他们的表现(Mahuta, 1978)。中国领导人关注的焦点仍然是关系，而不是组织的表现。此外，由于发展强大的关系，领导人被视为模范领导。
It is found that the difference is present within the manner in which leadership is viewed and performed across China and New Zealand. The comparison of the Guanxi concept with the networking performed by the Aotearoa indicates that both concepts holds similarity of informal networking wherein the New Zealanders are open to accommodate others whereas the Chinese are closed to it (Levy, 2004). The research has surfaced that while an informal networking is used as the basis for operating businesses and achieving social progression, the Aotearoa, New Zealanders supported the other individuals within their community through supporting one another in running households, childbirth, and child-rearing practices. The contrast and comparison of leadership has indicated that while the individuals across New Zealand are open to help and support other individuals, their Chinese counterparts extends their support and help on the basis of the guanxi (Kilkolly Proffit, 2013). The guanxi is taken very seriously by the Chinese as the members support one another only when the strong relationship has been developed with the members of community and other businesses along with the government. Hence, there is a considerable difference within the leadership as showed by China and New Zealand. The difference in leadership is present as while the leaders of New Zealand are viewed as a good leader due to their performance (Mahuta, 1978). The focus of leaders in China remains more on the relationships than the performance of the organization. Furthermore, the leaders are seen as exemplary leadership due to the development of their strong guanxi.
The concept of Confucian within the leadership focuses on the harmony and discipline. The concept of Confucianism is inherently a social system and ethical philosophy. This concept was developed by Kong Qiu, a Chinese teacher lived between years 551 BC and 497 BC. The concept was founded from the ancient religious ideologies for the objective of establishing transcendent ideals, social values, and institutions within the traditional society of China (Murphy, 2006). The focus of the Confucian remains on the three values that range from ritual, humaneness, and filial piety. The system enforces the sincerity, improvement of the personal and organizational morality and correction of the social relationships along with the justice. The Confucian concept is critical to understand in context of leadership in China for the purpose comparing it with New Zealand. The leadership in China has adopted the Confucian values wherein the respect for the parents is the first virtue for the leader within the component of filial piety. This is followed by the humaneness wherein the care and concern for others is of paramount importance. This is critical for the leadership and leaders in China since focus on ethical functioning is highlighted than the profit making.