沃尔玛自1991年在墨西哥开设第一家门店以来，一直在扩大其零售业务，并建立了自己的存在(Dess, 2012)。从那时起，它已经扩展到欧洲国家、亚洲国家、日本、巴西、阿根廷、加拿大、英国、哥斯达黎加，以及印度和中国等亚洲国家。它一直在谨慎地进行扩张，因为对其战略有影响的机构总是被考虑在内，以消除各种风险和感知到的中断(Chan, 2011)。它一直在采取一项对策计划，在制定进入一个新区域或国家的新战略时，考虑到所有机构的所有影响和影响的程度。这是绝对必要的，因为任何机构都可能对公司产生不可挽回的影响，明智的做法是对所有可能发生的事件保持警惕，并制定一项超越所有可能出现的限制的战略。
Analysis of Walmart’s global expansion and its response to formal and informal institutions in different regional setting
Walmart has been expanding its retail business and establishing its presence since 1991 when it first launched its store in Mexico (Dess, 2012). Since then, it has expanded into European countries, Asian countries, Japan, Brazil, Argentina, Canada, UK, Costa Rica, and the Asian countries of India and China. It has been working on its expansion cautiously as the institutions that have an impact on their strategy are always factored in to eliminate all kinds of risks and perceived disruptions (Chan, 2011). It has been adopting a game plan which considers all the influence and the extent of the impact of all institutions into account when it prepares a new strategy of entering into a new region or a country. This is absolutely essential as any of the institution can have an irreparable impact on the company and it is wiser to remain alert about all possible eventualities and prepare a strategy which surpasses all the constraints that could arise.
Role of formal and informal institutions
Institutions are existent to reduce the amount of uncertainty in the market and make actions and results more predictable. The role of formal institutions is more aligned with the streamlining of the process and makes the transaction feasible for companies wanting to execute their strategy. The formal institutions provide a regulatory framework to be followed by all corporations to reduce uncertainty and maximise the productive outputs that the corporation implements (Siebers, 2011). They provide a ready pathway to base their action so that the organisations fulfil their commitment to regulatory frameworks and there are less or no hurdles in the execution process of organisations.