The unguentarium was first discussed. Now the sarcophagus lid is discussed. The unguentarium was associated with the living and the sarcophagus is associated with the dead. The sarcophagus considered in this work is that of the lid of the sarcophagus. The provenance details are available for this. The place of provenance indicates it is from Italy, Etruvia and finally the Civita Museum. The image is that of a person reclining on a bed. The lid shows a person resting. Usually people are buried in a sarcophagus when they are dead but here the person is shown to be sleeping. Mystical creatures of the netherworld are depicted in the lid. It shows at least two snakes moving towards one another, apparently looking like they are speaking. Set in 399-200 BC, the sarcophagus history is traced back to a time when the materials used were Nenfro and the technique used was plain carving.
The use of the Nenfro is interesting. The Nenfro is basically hardened volcanic elements, like ash, lava etc. It is volcanic rocks that are gray in color mostly. They are made use of widely in Etruscan artworks and sculptures. This is a nice comparison with the material that was used to make Unguentarium’s. This was a time when most of the utensils used were made either from ceramic or with mud or clay. However, the Unguentariaum was made with blown glass which made it unique. Similarly, the use of the Nenfro is unique and is more everlasting and sturdy too.
The Penn website description states that there is a man with rolled fillet whose head reclines atop the lid. A cushion like gable is present in the structure and there is also interestingly some trace amounts of pain observed in the work. Red has been made use of for drapery. Yellow has been made use for depicting the necklace. This depiction probably existed to indicate it was gold. The hair was also depicted with a yellow shade. The two serpents or snakes are seen to be facing one another. The general function of the sarcophagus is for the purpose of burying someone. It is carved in stone and the lid might usually be above the ground. Specific use of some stones in the sarcophagus was essential to ensure that the final respects were paid for the person. The use of the volcanic rock is a fitting tribute as it is an everlasting stone structure for the final residence of the person.