The American academic, Harry Braverman, suggests that “The separation of hand and brain is the most decisive step in the division of labour taken by the capitalist mode of production.” in his book, Labor and Monopoly Capital, the Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century, (1974) Braverman’s principal conclusion was that the increasing fragmentation and specialisation of jobs had reduced the level of skill required for most jobs and that this process of de-skilling was integral to a deliberate management policy of increasing control over the labour process. Knowledge was concentrated in the minds (or hands) of management and thus profits could more easily be maximised.
M.J. Piore and Charles F. Sabel (1984) argued that: Capitalism underwent a process of restructuring and became in a number of ways less rigid and more flexible. In other side, consumers require more special goods which are not produced by mass production. As time want by, another socialist Enzo Mingione (1996) argues that there has been a shift from Fordism to Post-Fordism.